Calcium nitrate

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   Calcium nitrate   
Names: calcium nitrate
lime nitrate
norwegian saltpeter

Formula: Ca(NO3)2 (anhydrous)
Ca(NO3)2 · 4H2O (tetrahydrate)
SMILES: [N+](=O)([O-])[O-].[N+](=O)([O-])[O-].[Ca+2]
Molar mass: 164.086 g/mol (anhydrous)
236.146 g/mol (tetrahydrate)
Density: 2.504 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
1.896 g/cm3 (tetrahydrate)
Crystal system: cubic (anhydrous)
a=7.6 Å, b=7.6 Å, c=7.6 Åα=90°, β=90°, γ=90°
monoclinic (tetrahydrate)
a=6.2777 Å, b=9.1579 Å, c=14.4841 Åα=90°, β=98.62°, γ=90°
Shapes:
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Oblique_rhombic_prism.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Truncated_oblique_rhombic_prism.json
https://media.crystalls.info/w/uploads/media/Trapezoidal_flat_prism.json

Color: colorless
white
Melting point: 561 °C834.15 K <br />1,041.8 °F <br />1,501.47 °R <br /> (anhydrous)
42.7 °C315.85 K <br />108.86 °F <br />568.53 °R <br /> (tetrahydrate)
Boiling point: 132 °C405.15 K <br />269.6 °F <br />729.27 °R <br /> (tetrahydrate)
Magnetic properties: diamagnetic
Stability: stable (tetrahydrate)
highly hygroscopic (anhydrous)
Hardness: relatively strong
(2 on Moh's scale)
Toxicity: moderately toxic
LD50=302mg/kg

Description

Inorganic compound, salt of alkaline earth metal calcium and inorganic nitric acid. From water solutions crystallizes as tetrahydrate.

Minerals

Occurs in nature as nitrocalcite mineral.

Where to buy

In fertilizers store (as "Calcium nitrate") and pharmacy (as "heating pad").

Precursors

Reaction between calcium hydroxide or carbonate and nitric acid

Chemical equation:

2HNO3 + Ca(OH)2 = Ca(NO3)2 + 2H2O
2HNO3 + CaCO3 = Ca(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2


For preparation of 100.00g of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate а 31.38g of calcium hydroxide or 42.38g of carbonate and 82.10g of 65% acid is required.

Add acid to the flask, then add small parts of calcium compound with stirring until it will totally dissolve or, if you use carbonate, until carbon dioxide emission will stop. After reaction will stop, filter the solution and use it for crystal growing.

Reaction between calcium hydroxide or carbonate and ammonium nitrate

Chemical equation:

2NH4NO3 + Ca(OH)2 = Ca(NO3)2 + 2H2O + 2NH3
2NH4NO3 + CaCO3 = Ca(NO3)2 + H2O + 2NH3↑ + CO2


For preparation of 100.00g of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate а 31.38g of calcium hydroxide or 42.38g of carbonate and 67.79g of ammonium nitrate is required.

Add to the flask suspended in water calcium compounds and then add small parts of hot nitrate ammonium solution with heating and stirring. Emission of large amount of ammonia will begin.Attention, exuding ammonia irritates eyes and lungs! The synthesis should be carried out only in a fume hood or outdoors!

Notes

Dissolving is endothermic, solution cools much, so use hot water or using heat.
The solution absorbs moisture from the air, so growth is hard enough.

Storage conditions

Store in its original form or under several layers of varnish at average humidity and room temperature. Do not store in matchboxes or cotton wool and do not heat.

Solubility

Temperatureгр/100,00 гр waterгр/100,00 гр ethanolгр/100,00 гр methanolгр/100,00 гр acetoneгр/100,00 гр DMSOгр/100,00 гр pyridineгр/100,00 гр methyl acetateгр/100,00 гр nitric acidгр/100,00 гр acetic acidгр/100,00 гр propanolгр/100,00 гр isopropanolгр/100,00 гр isobutanolгр/100,00 гр ammoniaгр/100,00 гр dimethylformamideгр/100,00 гр amyl alcohol
(anhydrous)(tetrahydrate)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(tetrahydrate)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(anhydrous)(tetrahydrate)(anhydrous)
0°C273.15 K <br />32 °F <br />491.67 °R <br />102.082.8
10°C283.15 K <br />50 °F <br />509.67 °R <br />~115134
15°C288.15 K <br />59 °F <br />518.67 °R <br />~121~13689.2
20°C293.15 K <br />68 °F <br />527.67 °R <br />121.2127.351.4~1381.6869.5
25°C298.15 K <br />77 °F <br />536.67 °R <br />~159138.1~140275.750.0157.52.6733.3206.9
30°C303.15 K <br />86 °F <br />545.67 °R <br />~196154.5~14123.33
40°C313.15 K <br />104 °F <br />563.67 °R <br />271230.062.9144
50°C323.15 K <br />122 °F <br />581.67 °R <br />~313~151
60°C333.15 K <br />140 °F <br />599.67 °R <br />354158
70°C343.15 K <br />158 °F <br />617.67 °R <br />356
80°C353.15 K <br />176 °F <br />635.67 °R <br />358
90°C363.15 K <br />194 °F <br />653.67 °R <br />361
100°C373.15 K <br />212 °F <br />671.67 °R <br />363
Soluble in methylamine. Insoluble in dimethylamine and trimethylamine.


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